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Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials

Organic-inorganic nanomaterials

Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials

Organic-inorganic nanomaterials usually refer to nanocomposites of layered double hydroxide (LDH) and layered hydroxide salt (LHS). The research on organic-inorganic nanomaterials for pheromone controlled release has aroused great interest due to their unique structure as ion exchanger and their tailor-made behavior. These materials have unique high charge density and tunable interlayer spacing, so they can be host materials for many anions and sustained-release delivery systems.

Zinc-layered hydroxide (ZLH) is a type of LHS, consisted of a divalent metal cation in which only zinc and hydroxyl groups represent the inorganic layers. ZLH can be used as an encapsulated host material for active chemicals and can serve as a source of zinc for soil recharge, providing beneficial inputs to the environment. In addition, the nanomaterials are non-toxic to plants, so they can be used as a new generation of green and environmentally safe pesticide nanomaterials for insect control and crop protection.


Hexenoic acid, a pheromone targeting the meditarranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata), was used as guest and ZLH as host for the formulation of organic-inorganic nanomaterials with controlled release properties.
By embedding the trans-2-hexenoic acid (HE) into the intervertebral structure of ZLH, the prepared nanocomposite materials not only showed a good slow-release effect in the simulated outdoor environment, but also showed some responsiveness to the pH of the environment. In studying the effect of pH on the sustained release rate, it was found that the release of the pheromone component hexenoic acid was more favorable in acidic or alkaline environments. [1]

Metal-Organic Frameworks

In addition, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are also organic-inorganic hybrid materials, which are hybrid materials with intramolecular voids formed by the self-assembly of organic ligands and metal ions or clusters through coordination bonds. Since the interlayer spacing and internal hydrophobicity of the layered organic-inorganic MOFs can be controlled, this material has also been applied to the sustained release of pheromones.


Layered organic-inorganic MOFs materials prepared using alkylarylmonocarboxylic acid derivatives whose inorganic part is NiO4(OH)2. One of the most damaging pests to citrus plants is Aonidiella aurantii, whose sex pheromone active ingredient is 3-(S)-methyl-6-(R,S)-isopropenyl-9-decenyl acetate. The controlled release effect was investigated by different prepared laminated MOFs materials loaded with this pheromone molecule. And the alkylaryl acid NiO4(OH)2MOFs material (Ni-ITQ-DB) exhibits excellent slow release effect [2].

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  1. Ahmad, R.; et al. Evaluation of controlled release property and phytotoxicity effect of insect pheromone-zinc layered hydroxide nanohybrid intercalated with hexenoic acid. J. Agric Food Chem. 2015. 63(51): 10893-10902
  2. Moreno, J. M.; et al. Single-layered hybrid materials based on 1D associated metalorganic nanoribbons for controlled release of pheromones. Angew Chem Int Ed. 2016. 128(37): 11192-11196
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