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Epoxy-functionalized Pheromone

Epoxy-functionalized Pheromone List

Insect pheromones are a kind of micro chemical substances released by insect individuals in vitro, which can transmit information between insects and cause behavioral reactions of other individuals. Insect pheromones include intraspecific pheromones that only act on the same species and interspecific pheromones that act on other species. Insect pheromones mainly come from the secreting glands on the insect body surface, which is transmitted by air or other media. The recipient receives insect pheromones by means of chemical sensors, olfaction, taste and other methods, which can be shown as inhibition or stimulation. Insect pheromones are highly specific, including luring, stimulating, promoting or inhibiting feeding, oviposition, mating, gathering, alarm, defense and other functions. Epoxy functionality insect pheromone is a type of insect pheromone with epoxy groups, which plays an important role in insect information transmission. Based on the function of epoxy functionality insect pheromones in insect population, they have been applied to agriculture file on a large scale and achieved good results.


There are several typical epoxy functionality insect pheromones, and they are described as below.

  • (3Z,6Z)–9S,10R–epoxy–21carbadiene: (3Z,6Z)–9S,10R–epoxy–21carbadiene is the sex pheromone of hyphantria cunea. Hyphantria cunea is native to North America, mainly distributed in the United States and southern Canada, but in recent years, it has gradually invaded the world and has become a global pest. In addition, hyphantria cunea also has the characteristics of strong adaptability and large reproduction. As the sex pheromone, (3Z,6Z)–9S,10R–epoxy–21carbadiene plays an important role in the cure of hyphantria cunea. Furthermore, many articles have reported on this issue in recent years.
  • (E)–cis–6,7–epoxy–2–nonenal: (E)–cis–6,7–epoxy–2–nonenal is an aggregation pheromone of the aromia bungii. Synthetic (E)–cis–6,7–epoxy–2–nonenal can be used to collect a large amount of aromia bungii, so as to realize the large-scale elimination of aromia bungii.
  • Others: In addition to the epoxy functionality insect pheromones described above, there are many others. For example, (3Z,9Z)–6,7–epoxy–octadecadiene for the control of gray tea inchworm and cis–7,8–epoxy–2–methyl–octadecane for the control of gypsy moth.


  • Distinguish related species: By virtue of the specificity, epoxy functionality insect pheromones can be used as a supplementary mean for taxonomy. Especially for some closely related species that are difficult to distinguish only by morphological characteristics, it is easy to distinguish them by using epoxy functionality insect pheromones.
  • Pest control: Epoxy functionality insect pheromones can be used with chemical sterile agents, viruses and bacteria to control insect pests. Usually, epoxy functionality insect pheromones are first used to lure the pests together and make them contact with sterile agents, viruses, bacteria and others, and then contact and mate with other insects. In this way, the damage to the insect population is much greater than the immediate death.
  • Others: In addition to the above applications, epoxy functionality insect pheromones have other applications, including population monitoring, interfering mating, mass trapping and others.
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