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Carboxyl-functionalized Pheromone

Carboxyl-functionalized Pheromone List

Insect parapheromone are trace amounts of volatile chemical substances that are released from the body of insects to the outside of the body, which can cause behaviors or physiological reactions of other individuals of the same or different species. Insect pheromone plays an important role in biological communities, and mastering the code of insect pheromone can create conditions for humans to effectively use insects. After long-term research, the chemical structure of a large number of insect parapheromone has been known, and humans can already obtain insect parapheromone through artificial synthesis or extraction technology, which creates favorable conditions for the application of insect parapheromone to prevent pests. And insect pheromone has the advantages of high activity, strong specificity, gradual use, no pollution to the environment, no harm to natural enemies, etc. Its use can effectively slow down the pollution of pesticides to the environment. There are many kinds of insect parapheromone, and they are divided into alcohols, carboxylic acids, esters, aldehydes, olefins, etc. according to their chemical structure. Few reports of insect parapheromone containing carboxyl functional groups have been reported. So far, only the bee trail parapheromone has been found to contain carboxyl functional groups. In the honeybee, its role is to determine the direction of the honeybee in the external environment.

The chemical structure of bee trail parapheromoneFigure 1. The chemical structure of bee trail parapheromone


  • Attracting pollination: The synthetic trail parapheromone can attract collecting bees and improve the pollination efficiency of crops. The flowering period of fruit trees can increase the pollination efficiency of fruits such as pears, cherries, and apples, and increase the yield and fruit size.
  • Enhancing the community: Trail parapheromone can attract worker bees to eat, increase the intake of bees, and maintain a strong colony to the maximum.
  • Trapping africanized bee : The trail parapheromone can effectively attract killer bees into artificial caves, and greatly control the spread of killer bees, and appropriate control measures can be taken in time.


  1. Christian Reichle, Ingrid Aguilar, Manfred Ayasse, Stefan Jarau. Stingless bees (Scaptotrigona pectoralis) learn foreign trail parapheromone and use them to find food [J]. J Comp Physiol A, 2011, 197, 243–249.
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