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Aldehyde-functionalized Pheromone

Aldehyde-functionalized Pheromone List

Pheromone is a general term for compounds that play a role in chemical communication between organisms. Insect pheromone is the chemical molecular language of insect communication. It mainly refers to the trace chemical substances secreted by insects that can induce specific individuals to copulate, that is, sex pheromone. Insect pheromone has a high degree of specificity. Each pheromone has a specific chemical structure, and most pheromones are a mixture of several compounds in a certain proportion. So far, thousands of synthetic pheromones have been commercialized, and they are widely used in the fields of insect trapping, insect forecasting, and pesticide research and development. In addition, a deceptive predation behavior of animal species is also related to insect pheromones. For example, spiders can secrete a substance similar to pheromones to induce corresponding insects to throw themselves into the net. The structure of insect pheromone is mostly long-chain alkanes, and the functional groups mainly include hydroxyl, ester, carbon, and ethylenic bonds. Aldehyde-functionalized pheromone can be obtained by reducing acid compounds, which are mainly sex pheromone, ritatin and tracer. They are widely used in the development of biological pesticides, trapping and fascination of pests, tracking of insect traces, etc.

Common insect pheromone containing aldehyde functionalityFigure 1. Common insect pheromone containing aldehyde functionality


  • Population monitoring: The use of insect pheromone as a tool for insect status monitoring and investigation has been widely recognized. Foreseeing the occurrence period and amount of pests in advance is extremely important for proper control. For example, the use of sex pheromone to forecast the occurrence period of cotton bollworm is accurate and reliable, and it is more sensitive, simple, labor-saving, and money-saving than the black light lamp moth trap method.
  • Pesticide combined use: The use of sex pheromone in combination with chemical sterilization agents, viruses, bacteria, etc. can magnify the damage to the entire insect community. Sex pheromone attracts pests and leaves them after contact with sterile agents, viruses, bacteria, etc., and then contacts and mates with other insects, which will spread harmful substances to other insects and effectively control the pests.
  • Activity regulator: Parapheromone can be used as a mimic, synergist or inhibitor of natural pheromone, and regulate the activity of natural pheromone through artificial design and synthesis.


  1. Michael Morr", Christiane Proppe, and Victor Wray. Synthesis of Asymmetrical Methyl-Branched Chiral Ketones from the Corresponding Homologous Wax Esters. A New Synthesis of the Insect Pheromone Lardolure and of 9-Norlardolure [J]. Liebigs Ann. 1995,2001-2004.
  2. David Maxwell Suckling, Lloyd D Stringer, bAlfredo Jiménez-Pérez, Gimme H Walter, Nicola Sullivan and Ashraf M El-Sayed. With or without pheromone habituation:possible differences between insect orders? [J]. Pest Manag Sci, 2018, 74, 1259-1264.
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