Pheromone Ingredients List
Insect pheromones are trace chemical substances secreted by insects, which are species-specific communication systems and can be divided into intraspecific pheromones and interspecific pheromones. As a chemical communication tool in the reproductive stage between the insect of the same species, the high complexity and particularity of the chemical structure of insect pheromone ingredients are an important guarantee for the reproductive isolation between insects. Therefore, the pheromone ingredients between different insects cannot be replaced by each other, nor will they cause confusion. Moreover, pheromone ingredients are of great practical value in regional insect investigation, plant quarantine, trap control and others. Most pheromones are mixtures of several compounds in proportion, so the pheromone ingredients are often complex. However, figuring out the pheromone ingredients is important for better utilization of insect pheromones.
Depending on the functions, pheromone ingredients can be divided into sex pheromones, tracking pheromones, alarm pheromones, aggregation pheromones and others.
- Sex pheromones: Sex pheromone is a kind of substance secreted by insects during sexual maturity, which can induce the insect of the same species to come for mating. Therefore, the insect reproduction can be realized.
- Tracking pheromones: Many ants and bees leave tracking pheromones in their path to track their foraging or nesting route and instruct their companions to follow it. In particular, the tracking pheromones are not specific.
- Alarm pheromones: When some social insects are disturbed, they release alarm pheromones that can cause individual vigilance, escape or defense behavior. For example, when attacked by an enemy, the spotted alfalfa aphids immediately release an alarm pheromone that causes nearby aphids to stop feeding and leave.
- Agglomeration pheromones: Agglomeration pheromone is a chemical substance released by social insects during collective migration in order to maintain the survival of their colonies.
- Others: In addition to the above types, pheromone ingredients also include insect oviposition pheromones and others. For example, one species of apple fly marks the fruit surface with oviposition pheromones after laying eggs in it, which can prevent other females from laying eggs on the fruit.
Taking advantages of the functions of pheromone ingredients, they can be used in pest control. In addition, the use of pheromone components for pest control has the characteristics of wide effect, strong selectivity, no residual poison, no pollution to the environment and others. According to the principle of prevention and control, it can be divided into the following categories.
- Insect control by trapping and killing: The use of a large number of pheromone traps to control pests is called trapping and killing. This method is strong, harmless to beneficial insects and beneficial to the environment. The pheromone ingredient is mainly a sex pheromones and agglomeration pheromones, which can also be used in combination with adhesives, pesticides, chemical sterility agents, viruses, hormones or lights to kill large numbers of insects.
- Prevention and control of pests by anisotropic method: The pheromone ingredient used by this method is sex pheromone. In one case, the male is unable to identify the female's position, thus interfering with the normal mating behavior. In the other case, the male's feeler is physiologically tired, and they cannot respond to the female's sex lure.